It is one of the greatest pre-historic settlements in the Aegean. The structure of the settlement was dense and there has been a great effort by the excavators to separate the different periods of inhabitation based on the respective architectural remains. An important element is the existence of cyclopean walls which are visible today in great length and height. The archaeological research has shown traces of habitation since the beginning of the Early Bronze age (circa 3000 BC) until the middle of the Late Bronze age (circa 1250 BC), with the only exceptions being a sanctuary and a megaroid building of the Mycenaean period whose use was continued until 1100 BC, when the town was abandoned. The findings are numerous and indicate the activities of the residents (religious, social, artisanal, rural etc.), as well as the dense network of contacts with the rest of the Cyclades (Thera, Kea, Naxos), Crete, the islands of northeastern Aegean, mainland Greece and Eastern Mediterranean, which was largely based on the trade of local obsidian. Apart from the numerous clay vessels, the stone, clay and bronze figurines are of great importance (particularly the so-called “Kyra of Fylakopi” which was found at the sanctuary, work of the Mycenaean period), as well as a sign of Linear A, bronze items and stone vessels. A gold face mask constitutes an impressive finding which was found at the sanctuary as well. A systematic excavation on the site began in 1896 by the British School of Archaeology and it continued in 1911, in 1963 and in the years 1974-1977.
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