One of the most important events in the recent history of Patmos was the establishment of the School of Patmos (Patmias Scholi) in 1713. It was founded by the Patmian Makarios Kalogeras, who had contacts to families, such as the Ypsilantis and the Mavrokordatos family that supported him in his endeavour to establish “a school for the entire nation” in Patmos. Around the cave of the Apocalypse, Makarios built first a classroom for the tutorials and a few cells for the students to dwell in. Within a short time the school’s fame spread and young men from many places debarked on the island with the desire to study in the School. From 1729 and on, its popularity necessitated its enlargement. Many later scholars were students there. At the end of the 18th century the School of Patmos became one of the most significant schools in Greece, received many grants and donations and awarded scholarships to the poorest students.
During the 19th century the school fell into decline, but around 1831 it was renovated and resumed operation only to suspend it anew during the Italian Occupation from 1912 until 1947, when it opened again as a pastoral school. After 1948, with the support of the monastery of Saint John the Theologian, the Patmian Associations in America and other benefactors, new buildings were erected and used by the School to operate as an ecclesiastical school up until today.